Ants Release Airborne Poison to Paralyze Termites

Ants just got scarier. A certain type of African ant surrounds termites and sprays them with a toxin that eventually paralyzes them.

From Not Exactly Rocket Science:

C.striatula is a specialised termite-hunter. When it finds a termite, it raises its sting into the air, releasing chemicals that summon nearby nestmates. If the termite is a soldier, armed with powerful jaws, up to 15 ants can gather round. All of them stay a centimetre away from the termite, aiming their stings at it like fencers with swords outstretched. They close in, but they still never actually touch.

Termites don’t retreat – they defend their nests no matter the danger. That is a fatal mistake. After ten minutes of stand-off, the termite starts to shake. It rolls onto its back, with its legs batting the air in helpless convulsions. Within moments, it’s paralysed, and the ants finally move in and grab it.

C.striatula behaves in the same way when it finds other ants in its territory. These intruders have the good sense to flee, even if they’re much larger than C.striatula and even if they have the weight of numbers on their side.

It’s clear that the chemicals released from C.striatula’s sting do three things: they rally other workers; they repel other ants; and they paralyse termites…

Many animals have projectile weapons: some ants can spray formic acid; the  bombardier beetles squirt enemies with noxious burning chemicals; the spitting cobras spit venom; and both velvet worms and spitting spiders can spew immobilising glue.

In all these cases, there is an obvious and noticeable stream of liquid. By contrast, C.striatula’s long-range chemical weapon seems all the more sinister for its invisible nature. Only one other animal has something similar – another ant called Platythyrea conradti . It also raids termite nests. When it encounters a defending soldier, it drops into a crouch and opens its jaws. It never bites, and it doesn’t need to. Glands in its mouth release an airborne poison that paralyses the termites, in the same way that C.striatula does with its sting.

I’d love to see a video of this chemical warfare in action, but in lieu of that here’s a video from National Geographic showing an ant attack on a termite nest:

There’s a complex and fascinating world going on underneath us.

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