New Species Discovered Near Antarctic Seafloor

A plethora of new species have been discovered around hydrothermal vents near Antarctica. As always, the ocean has many surprises for us.

From ScienceDaily:

‘Hydrothermal vents are home to animals found nowhere else on the planet that get their energy not from the Sun but from breaking down chemicals, such as hydrogen sulphide,’ said Professor Alex Rogers of Oxford University’s Department of Zoology, who led the research. ‘The first survey of these particular vents, in the Southern Ocean near Antarctica, has revealed a hot, dark, ‘lost world’ in which whole communities of previously unknown marine organisms thrive.’

Highlights from the ROV [Remotely Operated Vehicle] dives include images showing huge colonies of the new species of yeti crab, thought to dominate the Antarctic vent ecosystem, clustered around vent chimneys.

We heard about yeti crabs earlier, when we learned that one species of them off the coast off Costa Rica may farm bacteria on its claws by waving them over methane-seeping fissures to feed them, then chowing down. Obviously cold fissures by Costa Rica are very different from hydrothermal vents by Antarctica, but it would be awesome if we found that a species had the same strategy there.

Elsewhere the ROV spotted numbers of an undescribed predatory seastar with seven arms crawling across fields of stalked barnacles and found an unidentified pale octopus nearly 2,400 metres down on the seafloor.

A seastar is a starfish, something I did not know. A predatory seven-armed starfish sounds like a thing of nightmares – if you’re a tiny sea animal anyway.

‘What we didn’t find is almost as surprising as what we did,’ said Professor Rogers. ‘Many animals such as tubeworms, vent mussels, vent crabs, and vent shrimps, found in hydrothermal vents in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans, simply weren’t there.’

The team believe that the differences between the groups of animals found around the Antarctic vents and those found around vents elsewhere suggest that the Southern Ocean may act as a barrier to some vent animals. The unique species of the East Scotia Ridge also suggest that, globally, vent ecosystems may be much more diverse, and their interactions more complex, than previously thought…

‘These findings are yet more evidence of the precious diversity to be found throughout the world’s oceans,’ said Professor Rogers. ‘Everywhere we look, whether it is in the sunlit coral reefs of tropical waters or these Antarctic vents shrouded in eternal darkness, we find unique ecosystems that we need to understand and protect.’

Very cool, as always. Scientists who look for new ocean species must laugh at their terrestrial counterparts; it’s like exploring space versus exploring your backyard. But now the real question: how do these new species taste?

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